Stem cells, which have now been discovered to be found in much more than bone marrow in adipose tissues, can be reproduced in private laboratories working in GMP standards and used in the treatment of a wide variety of diseases.
What is Stem Cell?
There are hundreds of different types of cells in our body that are important for our health. These cells are responsible for maintaining our body's daily functioning. For example, they provide functions such as the beating of our heart, the functioning of our brain, the cleansing of our blood by our kidneys, the regeneration of our skin, and so on.
The unique task of stem cells is to make all these different types of cells. Stem cells supply our new cells. When they divide, they can reproduce from themselves or from other cell types. For example, stem cells in the skin can make more skin stem cells or differentiate into other skin cells with a unique function, such as making melanin pigment.
The Importance of Stem Cells for Our Health
There are many different cells in our organs. When stem cells are damaged by the cells in the tissue or organs, they transform into that cell and treat the organs and tissues. They are tasked with repairing our damaged tissues and routinely replacing other cells that die. They provide healing or regeneration in the area they are directed to. Stem cells, whose dividing ability is unlimited, are the permanent protectors of our body.
Proliferation or transformation of stem cells into other cells
Types of Stem Cells
Each cell type has a structure and size suitable for its function. Cells with similar functionality make up tissues, and tissues make up organs.
Embryonic Stem Cells
Embryonic stem cells are cells inside the embryo, which was fertilized only a few days ago in the mother's womb, has just begun to develop, and consists of only 50 to 150 cells. These cells can differentiate into more than two hundred types of cells in our body.
Embryonic stem cells can regenerate a human or cloning can take place. For this reason, studies on embryonic stem cells by all countries of the world are restricted for ethical reasons.
The Importance of Embryonic Stem Cells
Embryonic stem cells are a type of stem cell that is emphasized in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, due to its ability to transform into all kinds of cells and tissues in a living organism and its ability to divide unlimitedly.
Fetal Stem Cells
It is a type of stem cell usually obtained from 8-12 weeks old fetus. It cannot regenerate a body, but it has the capacity to transform into almost any cell. It can be transplanted to another person and is used for therapeutic purposes around the world. However, although there is no proof yet, scientists are continuing research studies because the risk of forming a tumor in the transplanted body is suspected if it is reproduced before it is given to another body.
Adult Stem Cells
Adult stem cells are unspecialized and are located among other cells in tissues and organs. They have the ability to self-renew or transform into cells of the tissue or organ they are in.
Mesenchymal (Stromal) Stem Cell
A mesenchymal stem cell taken from an adult individual has the ability to transform into about 100 different cells that are known yet. These; are many different cells such as bone, cartilage, muscle, nerve, liver, pancreatic cells. It not only repairs the damage in its own tissue, but also transfers to the other tissue and provides repair in case of damage to another tissue. Since they are of connective tissue origin, they can contribute to the development and function of related tissue cells.
Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (IPSC)
Other body cells that are not stem cells can also be reprogrammed into stem cells. Stem cells obtained in this way are called induced (stimulated) stem cells. It is not ethically controversial as embryos are not used to obtain it.
With the proliferation of induced pluripotent human stem cells, embryonic stem cells have been accepted as the gold standard rather than a research tool. This is because therapies with embryonic cells can also be performed using IPSC.
What is Stem Cell Therapy?
The basis of stem cell therapy is based on the principle of using stem cells to repair tissues or organs by renewing damaged or missing cells. It is a treatment method that aims to eliminate the damage caused by various diseases on organs, to prevent premature aging and similar goals.
How Is Stem Cell Therapy Done?
Today, it has been discovered that stem cells and tissues obtained from our own body can be reproduced in the laboratory. Thus, Stem Cells have become usable in aesthetic and rejuvenation applications as well as in the treatment of many diseases.
In disease treatments, which type of cell can be used in which disease, the usage protocol and success rate are completely personal.
Reproduction of stem cells and tissues in the laboratory is a serious techno